Letter from the Editors of the NC Journal
Dear Readers of NC Journal,
Welcome to the Fall 2021 edition of the NC Journal. This publication marks the first issue under new editorship. In the Spring of 2021, when former editor John Acquaviva notified the NC Shape community that he would be stepping aside as editor and there was potential for the journal to go into hiatus without a new editor, we decided to volunteer as the new editors.
This journal was important to us, as we have previously been published in it, and we knew that many NC Shape members rely on this journal to publish shorter, more reader-accessible manuscripts. With that said, we both had articles in the pipeline for this issue of the journal. Dr. Siegele had an article accepted in the Spring, with the understanding that it would be published in the Fall issue. Dr. Schlosser was co-writing an article with another University of North Carolina at Pembroke scholar with anticipation of submitting for publication for the current issue. You will see both of these articles in the current issue. As co-editors, we were able to maintain the blinded peer-review process, by assigning our manuscripts to be handled by the other editor. It is not our intention to continue to regularly publish in this journal after the current issue. We understand that it may be perceived as a conflict of interest.
You will find a diverse range of articles in the current issue. We are happy to represent the broad range of Shape interests including adapted physical education, best practices in professional development, grading in the physical education classroom, body image concerns in athletes, diversity in sport management leadership, and service learning.
Thank you to the authors in the current issue for entrusting us as new editors with this publication. We look forward to working with many NC Shape members in the future as they pursue publication in the NC Journal.
Drs. Jessica Siegele and Teri Schlosser
Scaffolding Academic Service-Learning in the Department of Sport Management: Application of Corporate Social Responsibility and Sport for Development Models
In the sport management discipline, students have several opportunities throughout the curriculum to learn about ways in which sport serves the public good. One of the most impactful teaching strategies is through academic service-learning (ASL), where student learning outcomes can include an increaing knowledge of different cultures, greater connection to the community, and stronger application of course content. There have been limited intentional conversations around the connection between sport and the values of ASL. To address these challenges, the authors highlight a scaffolded approach to prioritizing ASL throughout the curriculum. This approach is anchored in the introduction and analysis of two popular sport-for-good approaches that are currently infused in sport management courses: Corporate Social Responsibility and Sport-for-Development Theory. This article provides a visualization of the scaffolded approach to ASL and examples of how sport management faculty integrate both theories throughout the curriculum. We hope faculty benefit from the pedagogical strategies provided which are aimed at improving students’ awareness, understanding, and application of how sport is used to better communities and society.
Standards Based Grading: Best Practices for Grading in Physical Education
Grading is often a misunderstood practice in physical education and leads educators using their best judgment or “gut feeling” (Svennberg, Meckbach, & Redelius, 2014). If systems of grading do exist in PE they can often be categorized into three categories: managerial tasks (ex: grading on dress and participation), improvement (advancement of score through a unit), or criteria (standards-based). The purpose of this paper is to guide new teachers entering the profession towards a model of standards based grading based on rationale and research.
Physical Education Teacher Candidates’ Professional Development Engagement in a State Conference
Diverse professional development engagement (PDE) has been highlighted in the National Standards for Initial Physical Education Teacher Education (NASPE, 2017). However, the topic has not been adequately examined. Therefore, this study explored the impact of PDE experiences during undergraduate program on teacher candidates (TCs)’ experiences, perception and readiness for their teaching job. Seven physical education TCs (M=5. F=2) who attended a NC State Conference – NC SHAPE- both as attendees and presenters participated in this study. Qualitative data were collected including semi-structured group interviews and researchers’ reflective journals and were analyzed using content analysis and constant comparative analysis. Four themes emerged: a) expanding spectrum of instructional ideas, b) widening network, c) strengthening rapport with peers and faculty, and d) learning from active engagement. Findings support development of TCs’ confidence in their teaching and commitment to continue professional growth and development through their positive experiences and learning from the conference. This study emphasizes the need of teacher educators’ efforts to create opportunities for TCs to engage in PDE experiences during physical education teacher education.
Impact of Social Media on Health Behaviors and Body Image of Adolescents
As children develop, their body image develops as well. Body image is how one sees and feels about themselves. Adolescents commonly compare themselves to peers and when they find themselves lacking, they develop a negative body image. Middle and high school students are increasingly using social media, especially highly visual social media (HVSM), such as TikTok and Instagram. HVSM uses images and short videos which users can alter or edit, thus presenting unrealistic versions of themselves. With the increasing use of highly edited images, the impact on body image is even greater. Boys and girls are impacted in different ways, but both are impacted by HVSM. Negative body image leads to poor mental health and the implementation of strategies to lose weight, gain muscle, etc. Teens also report that they get most of their health information from social media. Many of these sources of health information are not accurate and even worse, dangerous. Middle and high school teachers can play a significant role in educating students and parents about the impact of HVSM on their mental health and assist them in finding credible sources of health information.
Status of Physical Education for Students with Disabilities in North Carolina: How Far Have We Come?
It has been over four decades since the federal government mandated that all children with disabilities receive a free, appropriate education. As a result, many school districts have incorporated adapted physical educators to meet the needs of children with disabilities in physical education. This study examines how physical education is managed in NC schools by identifying the designated APE specialist personnel and surveying the perception of those APE specialists with the modified version of the questionnaire used in the study of Porretta and O’Brien (1989). In addition, teachers identified by local education agencies (LEAs) as the designated personnel serving students with disabilities were invited to participate in an online survey hosted on Qualtrics. Results indicate that over sixty percent of NC LEAs (n=71) had no designated APE specialists in their school districts. Thus, although there has been a growth of APE services for students with disabilities since the report of Porretta and O’Brien (1989), significant improvement is still needed to meet the needs of students with disabilities in NC.
Female and Minority Leadership in North Carolina Sport Organizations
Leadership in sport organizations has largely been dominated by White men. From collegiate athletic directors and coaches to professional ownership and management, the individuals leading sports teams are not representative of the population of athletes those leaders are serving. Each year several research centers publish reports quantifying the trends in the diversity of leadership within college and professional sport. This information is useful in order to understand the demographic landscape of sport leaders. This article details the current racial and gender makeup of leadership within sports. Data specific to North Carolina sports organizations is examined in further detail.